On April 10, a reporter from the South National Media learned from the Fourth People’s Hospital of Nanning that the hospital recently accepted a child with a 8 -year -old rabies.The child was caught by the dog in the village. After 5 days, symptoms such as fever, hallucinations, and water fear of water appeared.
The doctor reminded that the mortality rate of rabies is almost 100%. After being accidentally bitten and injured by animals, they must be disinfected and seek medical treatment as soon as possible.
It is understood that the child’s small town (pseudonym) was caught by a dog in the village in early March, and his family members did not handle it accordingly.That night, the dog died.
Five days later, the small town began to fever, and after 7 days, the symptoms of limbs jitter, fantasy, phantom, and irritability were sent to the local county hospitals for hospitalization.
During the hospitalization, the small town appeared symptoms such as water, wind, saliva and other symptoms. Considering rabies, they were then transferred to the Fourth People’s Hospital of Nanning.Although the hospital has made every effort to treat it, it has not been able to restore the life of the small city.
According to calculations, it was only 20 days from the small town to be bitten by a dog to the onset and death.
"Rabies is a mortal disease, and the mortality rate is almost 100%. We have not been diagnosed with rabies diseases for many years. We also feel regrettable when we see this situation."
"If you are caught or bitten by animals, you must disinfect the first time, go to the hospital dog injury clinic in time, and the doctor evaluates whether the rabies vaccine is needed.Can prevent rabies. "
It’s not only the bite of the dog to get the rabies, the shoveling officers come over
What is rabies?
Rabies is an acute infectious disease caused by rabies virus. It is a legal type of infectious disease in China. The clinical manifestations are extremely scared. It is terrible, wind, light, sound, pharynxual spasm, sweating, saliva, etc.In addition, there are still "paralysis" or "static types" with paralysis.After the onset of the disease, the disease is generally not more than 6 days. Occasionally for more than 10 days, there is still effective treatment for rabies. The mortality rate after people suffer from rabies is nearly 100%.
The latent period of rabies is different. After research by the World Health Organization, it is generally 2 weeks to 3 months.The length of the incubation period is related to the age (shorter), the wound area (earlier of the head and face bitter), the depth of the wound (the darkest period of the wound), the number of invasive viruses and the virus force.99 % will occur within one year, and it is rare for more than 1 year.
Rabie virus mainly exists in the saliva of animals.After the wild or home -nourishing animal bite, scratch or lick the mucous membrane (oral, anus, etc.) with rabies virus, it may be infected with rabies virus.
The American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) clearly states that all mammals can become rabies and rabies virus, especially meat mammals, dogs, cats, foxes, crickets, buns, and bats., Fish, insects, lizards, turtle and snakes, etc., will not be infected and spread rabies.
Post -exposure is the only effective means to prevent rabies after exposure. Through timely and correct wound treatment and full, regular and regular immunization, it can basically prevent the occurrence of rabies.
What is exposure?
Rabies exposed rabies into three levels according to the nature and severity of exposure:
(1) First -level exposure: contact or feeding animals; intact skin is lick; intact skin contacts the secretions or excreta of rabies or human rabies.
(2) Second -level exposure: naked skin is bitten; slightly bleeding slightly scratching or abrasion (first carefully observe the exposure of the skin if the skin is damaged with the naked eye;Pain indicates that the skin is damaged).
(3) Level 3 exposure: bit or multiple bite or scratches that run through the skin ("penetrating" means that at least it hurts the dermis layer and blood vessels, and the clinical manifestation is that the naked eye can be seen by the naked eye or the subcutaneous tissue); the damaged skin is licking.(Pay attention to small skin damage caused by various reasons such as skin cracking and scratching); the mucous membrane is contaminated by animal saliva (such as licking); exposed to bats (when people and bats have contactUnless the exposure is excluded from the exposure of bite, injury or mucosa).
Everyone should note that it is not only when the bite will be infected. It may be infected by suspected rabies to catch/bite, lick your wound/mucous membranes or naked wounds.
How to deal with it after exposure?
Take different measures according to the severity of the exposure (see the table below for details):
Photo source: China CDC "Guide to Rabies Disease Prevention Control Technology (2016 Edition)"
1. Tips for wound treatment: the more timely the wound is treated, the better the removal and killing effect of the virus that invades the wound. The first time after the injury can deal with the wound first.For example, tap water) and soapy water (can also use soap) or other weak alkaline cleaners to rinse the wound alternately, at least 15 minutes.After rinse, you can disinfect wounds such as iodine, 75%alcohol, 0.005-0.01%benzoxylide.
2. Dog injury clinic: Not each hospital provides rabies vaccination services. Do not go blindly. Citizens can check the fixed -point unit of rabies through the website of the CDC and go to the nearby dog wound clinic for further disposal.
3. vaccination strategy
(1) How many needles do I need to take?
There are five pins and four -needle method for selection.The five -needle method is injected with one needle in 0 days, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days; the four -needle method is injected in 0 days, 7 days, and 21 days, of which two stitches are injected in 0 days.
(2) What should I do if there is something delay?
The vaccination of rabies should be vaccinated throughout the process, full, and regularly to complete immunization. The first three stitches should be important!If a delay is delayed for one or days, the subsequent inoculation time is delayed accordingly according to the interval time of the original vaccination procedure.
(3) Can you take the vaccine away if you want to go to a business trip in other places?
No, the rabies vaccine needs to be stored in a cold chain system. It is not recommended to bring rabies vaccine to injects in different places.
(4) I can’t return it in the field. What should I do if there is no vaccine of the same brand in the local area?
It is recommended that the rabies vaccine should be used as much as possible in the use of the same brand of rabies vaccine to complete the whole process. Try not to mix with different brands of vaccines. If it cannot be achieved, it can be accepted by using qualified rabies vaccines with different brands.
(5) What should I do if I was bitten again?
If the exposure occurs again during the vaccination process, continue to complete the whole process in accordance with the original procedure; expose it again within half a year after the whole process, generally no need to injection again;; 1 year to 3 years, it should be exposed again, and 1 dose should be vaccinated in 0, 3, and 7 days; more than 3 years should be vaccinated.
(6) Can the elderly, children, pregnant women, and breastfeeding vaccine during lactation?Is there a taboos for injection of rabies vaccine?
After exposure, all people can and should be vaccinated with rabies. Crying rabies vaccine is safe and effective, and there is no need to adjust the dose.Children’s injection of rabies vaccine is the same dose as adults. Most of them have fever symptoms. Generally, no special treatment is required.There is no contraindication after the exposure of rabies vaccine, and rabies vaccine can be injected under strict monitoring under special circumstances.
(7) Is it impact?
Priority to vaccination should be given priority. If another vaccine is being vaccinated, the rabies vaccine can still be injected. It is recommended to choose another limb inoculation.
(8) Has been bitten for more than 24 hours, is it too late to vaccine?
We often say that the bite is to inject rabies vaccine within 24 hours, but it is useless to prevent prevention, but it is not useful that it is not more than 24 hours of injection rabies vaccine.The principle of rabies vaccine is that the earlier the vaccination, the better. If the vaccine is injected for more than 24 hours, as long as the vaccine stimulates the body to produce sufficient immune antibody, there is no disease before the vaccine, and the vaccine can play a role.It is important to deal with wounds in time after being bitten. It is not necessary to cause inner panic without having to be disturbed by the time of injection of rabies vaccine.
(9) My dog has taken a prevention needle and bitten by it. Do you need vaccine?
need.China is a rabies disease area. Even if the injured animals have been injected with vaccines, they must be dealt with, because it can only protect cats and dogs without disease.And the "health dog" may have the following potential problems: the previous vaccine is not necessarily a rabies vaccine; rabies vaccine may fail; some vaccines may need to be hit several times, or the number of times is not enough; not every dog after injection will produce every dog.Immunity, a small part of the case is ineffective.
During vaccination, drinking, drinking strong tea or coffee should be avoided; avoiding stimulating stimulation and spicy foods; avoiding strenuous exercise or severe physical labor; avoiding cortisol hormones, antimonyms, and immunosuppressants.
(11) What are the adverse reactions of rabies vaccine
A few have redness, pain, itching, and hardships in the injection site. There may be fever, headache, and fatigue. Individual vaccinators may have gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Generally, special treatment is needed.If the symptoms are obvious, you can go to the hospital for further examination and treatment.Those with allergies can perform corresponding anti -allergic treatment.
Reminder: Injecting rabies vaccines should go to regular hospitals with rescue equipment. Once allergic reactions occur, timely treatment can be obtained.
4. What is rabies immunoglobulin?Do you have to use the vaccine after being bitten by a dog?
Rabies immunoglobulin is a passive immune preparation. It is an exogenous antibody. It is infiltrated and injected locally on the injured parts.The spread of the first barrier to reduce the incidence.For the first exposed patient, if those who are identified as III exposure, or those with severe immunization or wounds in the II class are located at the head and face, rabies immunoglobulin should be used for prevention.
5. What is the ten -day observation method?
The "Ten Day Observation Law" was proposed by the World Health Organization, that is, if the injured animals remain healthy during the 10 -day observation period, or use appropriate diagnostic technologies to prove that the animal can not have rabies, it can stop immunocating vaccination.Note that on the 10th, the observation method is limited to family dogs, cats, and ferrets, and the injured animals need to be recorded 2 times to clearly record the history of effective rabies vaccine vaccination.However, even if the 10 -day observation method is used, the vaccine should be injected according to the procedure as soon as possible. Through the 10th observation, if cats and dogs are indeed healthy, the vaccine injection can be terminated.
Finally, if you are willing to become a "shoveling officer", the following suggestions can be collected:
1. Friends who want to raise cats and dogs must make preparations and psychological construction.
2. I hope you can inject the dogs and apply for a dog certificate on time on time. If you go out, you must take the rope to pick up shit.In addition, you also need to understand some animal behavior habits and social habits, master some skills to train dogs, and reduce unnecessary contradictions.
3. I hope that friends who do not raise pets will not take prejudice to look at cats, dogs, dogs and shoveling officials, because people who really like animals will manage their pets very well and raise civilized and scientific breeding.
Comprehensive South China Morning Post, surging news
Source: News Morning News