B -ultrasound is an important item in prenatal examinations. After pregnancy, you should have a lot of such similar reports:
Different names, different numbers, can not be familiar with obstetricians, but as non -professional, you are not very clear. Ask the doctor, the doctor’s answer is mostly "normal", sorry, it is too busy, there is no time to give it, no time to give it, no time to give it, no time to give it, no time to give it, there is no time to give it.You tell you one by one.
As a doctor, I often ask some questions full of curiosity and worry:
"Why are there no children in this?"
"Now pregnancy, the embryo has not formed yet?"
"This value has exceeded 3, I checked it on the Internet and said it was not normal."
"You see what the value of this 3 is, not the NT you said (the fetal neck is transparent)."
"My legs are short, what should I do?"
"My placenta is all three levels, is there a problem?"
"My head is small, is it deformity?"
Today, I will talk to you about the basic concepts of the names and values in the B -ultrasound report.
After pregnancy, you will do the first B-ultrasound at 6-8 weeks of pregnancy. At this time, you will see that the report form has the following names:
1. Gestational SAC GS
GS is the structure of the embryo, the first pregnancy structure seen by ultrasound.
The abdominal ultrasonic (per urine) can be seen 5-6 weeks after menopause, and the vaginal ultrasound can be seen 4 weeks after menopause.Generally, the three diameter of the GS will be measured, so you will see the value of "… x …. x ……. Cm/mm".
Based on these values, it can be used to determine the time of pregnancy:
Number of pregnancy days = the average inner diameter of the pregnancy sac (MM)+30
Number of pregnancy weeks = maximum inner diameter (CM)+3 of the pregnancy sac
Note: GS morphology is large, and the accuracy of the pregnancy age is poor according to its measurement value.
2. Yolk SAC
The yolk sac is an anatomical structure that is attached to the embryo, and is the first anatomical structure that can be seen by ultrasound in the pregnancy sac.
3. Fetal Pole
Only fetal buds occur can it be clear that it is intrauterine pregnancy.
The growth rate of fetal buds is 1mm/d, which can grow to 12mm at 53 days of pregnancy.
The fetal buds can be seen by 2mm or more, but 5-10%of 2-4mm embryo can still not see obvious fetal heart beat.
The length of the fetal bud can be used to calculate the pregnancy time, and the accuracy is within 3 days:
Number of pregnancy days = tire bud length (mm) +42
Fourth, head and hip length (CROWN-RUMP LENGTH CRL)
The word "head and hip long" was borrowed from the early 20th century embryo scientist. They found that the preserved early abortion specimen was "sitting on a chair" posture, so the length of the head and tail (the length of the hip of the crown) was used (the length of the hip of the crown))As a repeatable method to measure the fetus.
CRL measures the distance between the top of the embryo and the hip.
Measurement of CRL between 6 and 12 weeks of pregnancy is the most accurate way to estimate the pregnancy time:
Number of pregnancy weeks = crl (cm) +6.5
Note: The length of the pregnancy sac, the length of the tire buds, and the length of the head and hip can be used to calculate the gestational week, but the most accurate is the head and hip length.If the CRL does not exceed 84mm, CRL should be used to calculate the gestational week. If the CRL exceeds 84mm, the head circumference should be used to calculate the gestational week.
After 12 weeks of pregnancy, the B -ultrasound report will appear the following names:
1. Double -top diameter (BPD)
The distance between the sides of the head.
Most of the measurement starts when the 13 weeks of pregnancy or the head and hip length of more than 84mm.
Before 31 weeks of pregnancy, an average of 3mm per week; an average of 1.5mm per week of 31-36 weeks of pregnancy; an average of 1mm per week after 36 weeks of pregnancy.
12-28 weeks of pregnancy, the measurement value is closest to the gestational week.Different babies with the same weight may have different head sizes. In the late pregnancy period, they are affected by factors such as fetal position, head shape or fetal head.The size of the fetus is unreliable.
Second, head circumference
Regardless of whether the fetal head is round or long, the head circumference measurement can fully reflect the actual size of the fetal head, which is more meaningful than the BPD in the third trimester.
Third, abdominal circumference
Take the maximum horizontal section of the fetal abdomen for measurement.
Before 35 weeks of pregnancy, the abdomen circumference was less than the head circumference; about 35 weeks of pregnancy, the two were basically equal; after 35 weeks of pregnancy, the abdomen circumference was greater than the head circumference.
The abdominal circumference is closely related to the fetal weight, and is the indicator of the most important fetal size estimation of the fetus in the late pregnancy.
Fourth, femoral length (fengTh FL)
The week before 30 weeks of pregnancy increased by 2.7mm per week, an increase of 2.0mm per week in 31-36 weeks, and an increase of 1mm per week after 36 weeks.
Different gestational weeks of fetal diameter line values
Edited from Li Shengli "Fetal Ferry Before the Diagnosis of Ultrasonic Diagnosis".
Based on the double -top diameter and abdominal circumference, the fetal weight table is estimated
Five, fetal heart rate
The normal fetal heart rate is 110-160 times/min, and the fetal heart will not be fixed at a value, so the value of each check will be different.
Six, fetal umbilical arteries blood flow
In the middle and late pregnancy, the Doppler blood flow parameters of the umbilical artery can be used to evaluate the placenta cycle to determine whether there is a delay in the fetal development and whether there is a hypoxia in the fetus.In addition, if the fetus has abnormal chromosomes, congenital malformations, etc., the umbilical blood flow will sometimes show abnormalities.
Generally speaking, B -ultrasound will tell you the following three values:
Pi ——Beoppy Index;
RI — Umbilical arteries blood flow resistance index;
S/D -umbilical arteries blood flow speed peak ratio.
The amount of value is related to the number of pregnancy. After 28 weeks of pregnancy, S/D greater than 3.0 or RI greater than 0.6 indicates that the blood flow resistance increases, the blood speed becomes slower, the placenta is limited, and the fetus may be hypoxic.
Note: It is not so simple to judge whether the fetus is abnormal according to umbilical blood flow. It also needs to be comprehensively judged according to other indicators. Simple S/D is higher than normal. Do not panic, not necessarily the abnormalities.
Seven, amniotic fluid
Early pregnancy amniotic fluid is colorless clarification liquid.Gestation is slightly turbid and opaque. At this time, the B -ultrasound will tell you "amniotic fluid turbidity".
The amniotic fluid index (AFI): centered on the navel of the mother, divided into four quadrants in the upper left, lower left, upper right, and lower right, and measured the maximum depth of the amniotic fluid pool in the four elephants, and the sum of the four measured values is the amniotic fluid index.
Maximum depth of amniotic fluid (AFV): The vertical depth of the maximum dark area of amniotic fluid in the uterine cavity.
AFI ≥25cm or AFV ≥ 8cm is too much amniotic fluid, AFI ≤5cm or AFV ≤2cm is too low amniotic fluid.
The placenta can be attached to any place in the uterine wall. As far as the position of the mother’s body is concerned, the uterus is divided into the front wall and the back wall.The posterior wall placenta is attached to the back wall of the uterus.
Remember: The front wall is not the front.
2. Placental grading
The placental grading is performed according to the changes of the three parts of the choric membrane, the substance of the placenta, and the base membrane.
Generally speaking, level 0 placenta has just developed and has not yet matured. It is often seen before 29 weeks of pregnancy; level I placenta tends to mature, commonly in 29 weeks of pregnancy-full month;After 36 weeks of pregnancy; level III is a mature and aging of the placenta, which is common after 38 weeks of pregnancy.
So, does the placental level III mean that the placental function is not good and will affect the fetus?
Some studies believe that there is a large -scale pseudo -positive between placenta grading and maturity of the lungs, so the placental classification and placental function cannot be treated equally.If the B -ultrasound prompts the placenta level, as long as the fetus continues to grow, the amount of amniotic fluid is not reduced, and the fetus does not have to worry about the manifestation of hypoxia.
It is an indicator of the placenta maturity of the placenta grading. There are calcification stoves that the placenta is mature, but it does not mean that the fetus will danger.
Nine, ultrasound pregnancy weeks/clinical pregnancy week
The ultrasonic gestational week refers to the number of pregnancy weeks calculated based on the size of the fetus measured based on B -ultrasound. The clinical weeks are the number of pregnancy weeks calculated based on your last menstrual period.
Ultrasonic pregnancy weeks can accurately reflect the actual pregnancy week of the fetus in the early stages of pregnancy. If you have irregular menstruation or the date of the second menstruation in the last menstrual period, you need to check the early B-ultrasound gestational weeks.
The later, the more the ultrasonic gestational week cannot reflect the actual gestational week of the fetus. Just as the height and weight of the child of the age are different, there are differences in the length and weight of the fetus of the same gestational week.
Well, now you can look at your B -ultrasound report. Most nouns and values know what is going on.